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In this blog, you will get all the information related to the telecommunication industry in India. Also you will find different sort of customer care number like toll free numbers, region wise numbers, etc. and also u will get all kind of help to relate to activation/deactivation of the SIMcaller tunesvalue-added services (VAS),  Mobile number portability (MNP) services, Plans, Billing, APN settings, Do Not Disturb (DND), and much more services.

What Is Telecommunication? | Introduction
Transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, articles, images and sounds or information of any nature, through a wire, radio, optical or electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication happens when it involves the use of technology in information sharing. It is either electrically transmitted through physical media, such as cables, or electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission pathways are often divided into communication channels that provide multiplexing benefits. Since Latin word communication is considered to be a social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is often used in plural form because it contains many different techniques.

Initial media of distance interaction included visual signals, such as beacons, smoking signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lungs, and horny whistles. Technologies for the long-term communication of the 20th- and 21st Century usually includes electrical and electromagnetic technologies such as telegraphs, telephones, and teleprinter, network, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics and communication satellites.
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In the first decade of the 20th century, a revolution in wireless communication began with leading development in radio communications by Guillo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, and other notable pioneer inventors and developers, areas of electrical and electronic telecommunications. Among them are Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse (inventor of the telegraph), Alexander Graham Bell (the inventor of the telephone), Edwin Armstrong and Lee Dee (inventor of the radio), as well as Vladimir. Zawrakin, John Logie Bear and Philo were involved in Farnworth (some inventor of television).

Telecommunication is a complex of the Greek prefix tele (τηλε), which means distant, distant, or distant, and the Latin correspondent, which means sharing. Its modern use has been adapted from French because its written usage was recorded in 1904 by French engineer and novelist Edouard Astony. Communication was first used as an English word in the latter half of the 14th century. It comes from Old French Communications (14 C., Modern French Communications), from the Latin Communication (Nominated Communications), the name of the action from the stem to the previous part of the communication "to share, divide out; communicate, impart, inform; join, unite, participate in", literally "to make common", from communis".


1. Beacons and pigeons
Homing pigeons are sometimes used throughout history by different cultures. There were Persian roots in the pigeon post, and later the Romans used to help their army. Frontinus said that Julius Caesar had used pigeons as messengers in the victory of Gaul. The Greeks used the Homing Pigeons to name the winners in different cities in the Olympics. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Java and Sumatra. And in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a dove service to blow stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, which is a service operated for one year until the gap in the telegraph link was not closed

In the Middle Ages, the beacon series was generally used on the hills as a means of relaying signals. Beacon Chenes faced this shortcoming that they can pass only one information, so the message like "The enemy has been seen" had to be agreed already. A remarkable example of their use was during the Spanish Armada when a beacon series relayed a signal from Plymouth to London.

In 1792, French engineer Claude Chapé created the first definitive visual telegraphy system (or semaphore line) between Lilly and Paris. However, the semaphore was suffering from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at ten to thirty kilometers (six to nineteen miles) intervals. As a result of competition from the electric telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880.

2. Telegraph and Telephone
On July 25, 1837, the first commercial electric telegraph was displayed by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cook and English scientist Sir Grahamstown. Both inventors saw their device as "an improvement in the current [electromechanical] electromagnetic telegraph" because not as a new device.

Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the Power Telegraph, which he displayed unsuccessfully on 2 September 1837. His code was a significant development on the signaling method of Geoffstone. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was successfully completed on July 27, 1866, which allowed the transatlantic telecommunications for the first time.

The invention of traditional telephones was independently invented in 1876 by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray. Antonio Mayuchchi invented the first device which allowed the transmission of the sound on one line in 1849. Although Machi's device had a little practical value because it was dependent on the electrophone effect and thus users were asked to "hear" the receiver in their mouth, what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were established in 1878 and 1879 in the cities of New Haven and London on both sides of the Atlantic

3. Radio and television
Beginning in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing wireless communications using the newly discovered incident of radio waves, which was shown until 1901 that they could be broadcasted in the Atlantic Ocean. This was the beginning of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music were performed in 1900 and 1906, but its initial success was. [Citation needed] World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass media for entertainment and news. World War II sharpened the development of radio again for the purposes of war and land communications, radio navigation and war of radar. The radio's stereo FM broadcast was developed from the 1930s ward in the United States and was displaced as a major commercial standard in the United Kingdom until the 1960s and 1970s.

On March 25, 1925, John Logie Baird was able to demonstrate the transmission of moving pictures in the London Department Store Self -ridges. The Beard device relied on the Nippo disc and thus came to be known as Mechanical Television. It created the basis for experimental broadcast by British Broadcasting Corporation from September 30, 1929. However, most of the twentieth century TVs were dependent on the cathode ray tube invented by Karl Braun. To show the promise, the first version of such a television was produced by Philo Farnworth and on September 7, 1927, his family was shown. After World War II, experiments on television were interrupted, and it became an important home entertainment broadcast medium.

4. Computers and the Internet
On September 11, 1940, George Stibitz broadcast problems using Telenet for his complex number calculator in New York and received results calculated at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. This centralization of a centralized computer (mainframe) with remote dumb terminals was popular in the 1970s. However, in the 1960s, researchers began investigating packet switching, a technique that sends a message in parts of their destination without passing it through a centralized mainframe. A four-node network was developed on December 5, 1969, which introduced ARPANET, which increased to 213 nodes until 1981.  Ultimately ARPANET merged with other networks to create the Internet. While Internet development was a focus of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which published a series of requests for comment documents, other laboratory advancements took place in industrial laboratories, such as the local area network (LAN) or Ethernet (1983) Development and Token Ring Protocol (1984).

Key Concept

1. Basic Element
Telecommunication technologies can be divided mainly into wired and wireless methods. Altogether, a basic telecommunication system consists of three main parts which are always present in some form or in some other form:
  • A transmitter that takes the information and converts it into a signal.
  • A transmission medium also called a physical channel, which keeps the signal. An example of this is "Free Space Channel".
  • A receiver that takes a signal from the channel and converts it into the information that can be used for the recipient.
For example, in a radio broadcasting station, the station has a large power amplifier transmitter; And there is an interface between the broadcast antenna power amplifier and "free space channel". Free Space Channel is transmission medium, And there is an interface between receiver antenna free space channel and receiver. After this, the radio receiver is the destination of radio signals, and this is where people are transformed from sound to electricity to listen to them.

Occasionally, the telecommunications system is "duplex" (two-way system) which acts as a transmitter and receiver, or transceiver, with a box of electronics. For example, a cellular telephone is a transceiver. Transmission electronics and receiver electronics within a transceiver are actually quite independent from each other. It can be easily explained by the fact that radio transmitters have power amplifiers that work with electrical power measured in watt or kilowatt, but radio receivers deal with radio power which is measured in microwaves or nano vatos. Therefore, due to not interfering, transsexual should be carefully designed and designed to separate each other from its high power circuitry and their low-power circuitry.

On certain lines, telecommunications is called point-to-point communication because it is between a transmitter and a receiver. Telecast broadcasts are called radio broadcast because it is between a powerful transmitter and much low power but sensitive radio receivers.

Telecommunication in which multiple transmitters and multiple receivers are designed to collaborate and share the same physical channel is called multiplex systems. Sharing of physical channels by using multiplexing often reduces costs significantly. Multiplex systems are placed in the telecommunications network, and multiplexed signals are switched on to the nodes via the right destination terminal receiver.

2. Analog vs digital communication
Communication signals can either be sent by an analog signal or digital signal. There are analog communication systems and digital communication systems. For an analog signal, the signal is constantly different in relation to information. In digital signals, information is encoded as a set of different values (for example, a set of people and zeros). During publicity and reception, information contained in analog signals will inevitably become confused with unwanted physical noise. (The output of a transmitter is noisy for all practical purposes.) Normally, in a communication system, noise can be expressed in a completely random way in the form of adding or subtracting from the desired signal. This noise is called additive noise, that with the understanding that noise needs can be negative or positive in different parts. The noise which is not additive noise is a more difficult situation to describe or analyze, and these other types of noise will be left.

On the other hand, unless the additive noise disturbance is more than a certain threshold, the information contained in the digital signal will remain intact. His resistance to noise shows a major benefit of digital signals on analog signals.
Analog vs Digital

3. Telecommunication network
A telecommunications network is a collection of transmitters, receivers and communication channels that send messages to each other. Some digital communication networks have one or more router that works together to transmit information to the right user. An analog communication network consists of one or more switches that establish connections between two or more users. For both types of networks, repeaters may be necessary to increase or re-generate the signal when it is being broadcasted over long distances. It is to combat attenuation which can offer different signals from noise. Another advantage of digital systems on analog is that their output is easy to store in memory, i.e. easy to store compared to the continuous series of two voltage states (high and low) states.

4. Communication channels
In the telecommunications, the second meaning of the word "channel" is seen in the communication channel, which is a subdivision of a transmission medium so that it can be used to send multiple streams simultaneously. For example, a radio station can broadcast radio waves at free space in the neighborhood of 94.5 MHz (MHz), while another radio station can broadcast radio waves simultaneously at frequencies in the neighborhood of 96.1 MHz. Each radio station will transmit radio waves to the frequency bandwidth of approximately 180 kHz (kHz), which is centered on the above frequencies, which is called "carrier frequencies". In this example, each station has been separated from its adjacent stations to 200 kg, and there is an engineering allowance for incompleteness in the intercommunication system between 200 KHz and 180 KHz (20 KHz).

In the above example, according to the "free space channel" frequencies, the communication channels have been divided, and each channel is assigned a different frequency bandwidth in which the radio waves are transmitted. According to frequency, this system of dividing the medium into channels is called "frequency-division multiplexing". Another term for the same concept is "wavelength-division multiplexing", which is usually used in optical communication when multiple transmitters share the same physical medium.

Another way to split communication media into channels is to assign recurring clauses (a "time slot", for example, 20 milliseconds from each second to each sender), and allow each sender to send messages within their own time only Slot to give This method of dividing the medium into communication channels is called "time-division multiplexing" (TDM), and it is used in optical fiber communication. Some radio communication systems use TDM within the allocated FDM channel. Therefore, these systems use a hybrid of TDM and FDM.

4. Modulation
Modulation can also be used to transmit information of the low-frequency analog signal to high frequencies. This is helpful because low-frequency analog signals cannot be effectively transmitted in free space. Therefore, information of low-frequency analog signal should be affected in high-frequency signal (known as "carrier wave") before transmissions. There are several different modulation schemes available to achieve this [two most basic dimension modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM)]. An example of this process is affecting the 96 MHz carrier wave using the sound frequency modulation of a disc jockey (then the radio will be received on the radio as "96 FM" channel). Additionally, the advantage of modulation is that it can use the frequency division multiplexing (FDM).


There is an important social, cultural and economic impact on the modern society of telecommunications. In 2008, estimates put the revenue of the telecommunications industry down by 3% to $ 4.7 trillion or gross world product (official exchange rate). The following several sections discuss the impact of telecommunications on society.

1. Economic impact
On a microeconomic scale, companies have used telecommunications to help build global business empires. This online retailer is self-evident in the case of, but according to academic Edward Lentre, traditional retailer Wal-Mart has benefited from better telecommunications infrastructure than its competitors. In cities around the world, homeowners use their telephones to organize and organize different types of home services from pizza delivery to electricians. Even relatively poor communities have been noted to use telecommunication for their benefit. In Narsingdi district of Bangladesh, different rural people use cellular phones directly to talk to wholesalers and arrange better value for their goods. In Côte d'Ivoire, coffee growers share mobile phones for hourly diversity in coffee prices and sell at the best prices.

On a wider economic scale, Lars-Hendrik Roller and Leonard Weverman suggested an important link between good telecommunications infrastructure and economic growth. The dispute over the existence of some correlation, although some argue that it is wrong to see the relationship as causal.
Due to the economic benefits of good telecommunications infrastructure, there is an increasing concern about the uneven reach of telecommunication services between different countries of the world - this is known as a digital segmentation. A 2003 survey by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) showed that nearly one-third of the countries have less than one mobile subscription for almost 20 countries and more than one landline telephone subscription for every 20 people in one-third of the countries. In terms of Internet access, half of all countries are less than one in 20 people with internet access. In addition to this information, academic data, ITU was able to compile an index that enables the citizens to access the overall capacity and use information and communication technologies. Using this measure, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland got the highest ranking, while African countries Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Mali got the lowest score.

2. Social Impact
Telecom has played an important role in social relations. Nevertheless, devices such as telephone systems were advertised with an emphasis on the practical dimensions of the device (such as business or order ability to operate home services), unlike social dimensions. By the end of the 1920s and 1930s, it was not that the social dimensions of the device became a major subject in telephone advertisements. The new publicity started appealing to consumers' emotions, emphasized the importance of social interaction and stressed on staying connected with family and friends

Since then, the role played by telecommunications in social relations has become increasingly important. In recent years, the popularity of social networking sites has increased dramatically. These sites allow users to interact with each other to view photos, events, and profiles in addition to posting. Profiles can list the status of a person's age, interests, sexual preference, and relationship status. In this way, these sites can play a vital role in everything to organize social activities.

Prior to social networking sites, social interaction of technologies like short message service (SMS) and telephones also had a significant impact. In 2000, Market research group Ipsos Mori told that 81% of 15 to 24 year SMS users in the United Kingdom used the service to sync social systems and flirt 42%.

3. Other Impact
In cultural terms, telecommunications has increased the ability of the public to reach music and film. With television, people can watch movies that have been watched in their home without traveling in the video store or cinema. With radio and the internet, people can listen to music, which they have not heard before without traveling to the music store.

Telecom has also changed the way people get their news. In the United States, the majority of televisions or radios specified on newspapers in the 2006 survey (right table) of more than 3,000 Americans by nonprofit Pew Internet and American Life Project

Telecommunication has a similar effect on advertising. TNS Media Intelligence stated that in 2007, 58% of the expenditure on advertising expenditure in the United States was spent on the media, which relies on telecommunications.


Many countries have enacted legislation which is in conformity with the International Telecommunication Regulations set up by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which is a "United Nations agency for the issues of information and communications technology". In 1947, at the Atlantic City Conference, ITU "decided to take the risk of international security for all frequencies registered in a new international frequency list and used it according to radio regulation." According to the radio regulations of the ITU adopted in the Atlantic City, all the frequencies referred to in the International Frequency Registration Board, examined by the Board and registered in the International Frequency list "will have the right to international security with harmful interference."

From a global perspective, there has been political debate and laws regarding the management of telecommunications and broadcasting. The history of broadcasting discusses some debates regarding the balance of traditional communication such as printing and telecommunications such as telecommunications. The beginning of World War II brought on the first explosion of international broadcasting. The country, their governments, the rebels, the terrorists and the militiamen have used telecommunications and broadcasting technologies to promote all the promotions. Patriotic propaganda for political movements and colonialism began in the mid-1930s. In the year 1936, the BBC broadcast publicity in the Arab world to partly deal with a similar broadcast from Italy, which also faced colonial interests in North Africa.

Modern insurgents, such as in the latest Iraq War, often distribute sophisticated video calls, SMS and sophisticated video of the attack on coalition troops within hours of operation. "Sunni insurgents also have their own television station, al-Jawara, which is banned by the Iraqi government, yet airs Iraqi Kurdistan with Airbus, even if the pressure of the coalition has changed it several times to satellite hosts. Be compelled. "

On November 10, 2014, President Obama recommended the Federal Communications Commission to reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service to preserve pure neutrality.

Modern media

Sales of equipment worldwide
According to data gathered by Gartner and ARS Technica [64], the sale of telecommunications equipment was the main consumer of millions of units worldwide:
Equipment / year
Cell phones

1. Telephone
In a broadcast system, the central high-powered transmission tower is broadcasted to a high-frequency electromagnetic wave less operated receiver. The high-frequency wave sent by the tower is modulated with a signal with visual or audio information. The receiver is discontinued The high-frequency waveform is being used and a modulator is being used to obtain the signal with visual or audio input. The broadcast signal may either be analog (the signal continuously varies in relation to information) or digital (the information is encoded as a set of different values).

Landline telephones are analog in most residential homes i.e., the speaker's voice directly determines the signal voltage. [Citation needed] Although short-distance calls can be handled as an analog signal until the end, rapidly telephone service providers are transmitting signals transparently in digital signals for transmission. The advantage of this is that the digitized voice data can travel with the data from the internet and it can be completely reproduced in long distance communication (unlike analog signals which are essentially influenced by noise ).

Mobile phones have had a significant impact on the telephone network. Mobile phone subscription is now more than fixed line membership in many markets. Sales of mobile phones in 2005 were 816.6 million, which was shared almost equally in the markets of Asia / Pacific (204 meters), Western Europe (164 meters), CEMEA (Central Europe, Middle East, and Africa) (153.5 meters) Was there. , North America (148 m) and Latin America (102 m). In the context of new membership in five years from 1999, Africa has surpassed other markets with an increase of 58.2%. These phones are being serviced by systems where voice content is digitally transmitted like GSM or W-CDMA, in which many markets opt to exclude analog systems such as AMPS.

There have also been dramatic changes in telephone communication behind the scenes. With the operation of TAT-8 in 1988, the adoption of the system was widely adopted on the optical fiber in the 1990s. The advantage of communicating with optic fiber is that they provide a huge increase in data capacity. TAT-8 was capable of making 10 times more telephone calls as the last copper cable kept at that time, and today's optic fiber cables can take up to 25 times as many telephone calls as TAT-8.  This increase in data capacity is due to many factors: First of all, optic fibers are physically very small with competitive technologies. Second, they are not suffering from cross-stock, which means that several hundred of them can easily be bundled together in a cable. Finally, the improvement in multiplexing has seen exponential growth in the data capacity of a fiber.

Support of communication in many modern optic fiber networks is a protocol called Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). The ATM protocol allows for side-by-side data transmission mentioned in the second paragraph. It is suitable for public telephone network because it establishes the route for data through the network and connects traffic agreement with that route. Traffic contract is essentially a compromise between the client and the network; about the network about how data handling data; If network traffic cannot meet the terms of the contract, then this connection does not accept. This is important because the telephone call can negotiate the contract so that a steady bit rate can be guaranteed to themselves, which will ensure that the collar's voice parts are not delayed or completely cut off. There are opponents of ATMs like Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), who do the same work and expect to supply ATMs in the future.
Telephone | telecom Customer Care

2. Radio and television
In a broadcast system, the central high powered transmission tower transmits a high-frequency electromagnetic wave to many less operated receivers. The high-frequency wave sent by the tower is modulated with a sequence of visual or audio information. The receiver is then tuned so that the high-frequency wave can be raised and a demodulator can be used to retrieve the signal with visual or audio input. The broadcast signal can either be analog (the signal continuously varies in relation to information) or digital (the information is encoded as a set of different values).
Many countries of the broadcast media industry are at a critical juncture in its development, as well as moving forward from analog for digital broadcasting. Cheap, fast, and more capable, integrated circuits, it is possible to move from its production. The main advantage of digital broadcasting is that they stop many complaints on a common basis for traditional analog broadcasts. For, involves the elimination of a problem like a picture, ghosts etc. and other distortion. These are due to the nature of analog transmission, which means that due to the noise the apparent desire in the final output is due to noise. Due to the completion of this problem digital transmission is reduced due to different signals on digital signal reception and therefore small problems do not have to do the final output. In a simple general example, if a binary message was transmitted with a 1011 signal dimension [1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0] and was received with signal dimension [0.9 0.2 1.1 0.9] it still decoded to binary message 1011 - One complete reproduction of what was sent was From this example, there is a problem with digital transmission too if the noise is sufficient then it can significantly change the decoded message. Using further error correction A receiver can correct some of the results in the message, but a lot more noise causes accurate output and hence the breakdown of the device.

Digital Media Broadcasting, there are three positions I have the settings that are likely to be known worldwide. These are AATC, DVB and Taubman settings; This man has been presented in the captioned map so far. Use the Mpeg-2 for all three Man settings video compression. The ATSC uses Dolby Digital AC-3 for audio compression, uses ISDB Advanced Audio Coding (MPEG-2 Part 7) and incentives does not have any standard for audio compression but generally on MPEG-1 part 3 Uses layer 2.Modulation choices also vary between schemes. In digital audio broadcasting, practically the standards are more integrated with the man of all countries to adopt a digital audio broadcast standard (also called zero Eureka 147 standard). The exception is the United States, which chose the JNHD Radio Apana. Unlike Eureka 147, the HD radio is based on a transmission method, known as joint-band on-channel transmission, which allows general information to "piggyback" on normal AM or FM analog transmission.
However, in spite of the pending switch on digital, an analog amount is being broadcasted in countries. One exception is the United States that the analog media broadcast ended (very few electric TV stations from all) on June 12, 2009, after a deadline delay of two changes. Kenya also ended analog transmission in December 2014 after several delays. For analog positive, there were three standards used for color TV broadcasting (see a map on taking the hexagon). They are known as PPL (German design), NTSC (American design), and SECAM (French design). For analog radio, the switch on digital radio is made more difficult by the high cost of the digital receiver. The choice of modulation for analog radio is usually between absolute (AM) or frequency modulation (FM). To get stereo playback, one hour modulated subcarrier is used for stereo FM, and the square dimension modulation is used for stereo AM or C-Kwam Land.

3. Internet
Internet Protocol (IP) is a worldwide network of Internet computers and computer networks that communicate with each other. Any computer on the Internet has a unique IP address that can be used to route information through other computers. Therefore, any computer on the Internet may also have another computer message using the IP address. In these messages, the IP address of the original computer with them allows two-way communication. The Internet is thus the exchange of messages between computers.

This ensures that it has been established that in the year 2000, 51% of information flowing through two-way telecommunications network was flowing through the Internet (remaining (42%) from landline telephones). As of 2007, the Internet Telecommunication Network (the rest (2%) captured and captured 97% of all information through mobile phones). As of 2008, the estimated 21.9% of the world population is in North America (73.6%), Oceania / Australia (59.5%), with access to the internet with the highest reach rate (as a percentage of the population) and Europe (48.1%). In terms of broadband penetration, Iceland (26.7%), South Korea (25.4%) and the Netherlands (25.3%) lead the world.

The Internet protocol works because of the reason that it controls how computers and routers communicate with one another. The nature of computer network communication lends itself to a layered approach where individual protocols in the protocol stack run more or less independently than other protocols. This allows lower level protocols to be optimized for network status, whereas high-level protocols do not change the way to operate. This is a practical example of why this is important because it is an Internet browser allows to run a single code even if the computer running on it is connected to the Internet via Ethernet or Wi-Fi, the connection to the Internet. Protocols are often talked about in reference to their location in the OSI reference model (plated painted), which emerged as the first step in the unsuccessful effort of the universally adopted networking protocol suite in 1983.

For the Internet, the physical media and data link protocol can vary a number of times because packets come across the world. This is because the Internet does not impede the use of physical medium or data link protocol. This leads to the adoption of media and protocol which is in line with the local network. In practice, use the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) protocol (or a modern equivalent) at the top of most intercontinental communication optic fibers. This is because the Internet for the majority of intercontinental communications shares the same infrastructure as the public switched telephone network.

On the network, with the adoption of the logical addressing Internet Protocol (IP), things become standard. For the World Wide Web, these "IP addresses" are humanly readable using the domain name system (taken from for example). At the moment, the most widely used version of the Internet Protocol version is four but one step closer to version six.

On the border, most communications either adopt Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP is used when it is necessary that each message sent is received by another computer while UDP is used only if it is desirable. With TCP, if they are lost and neither the layers are kept in order before submission, the packet is then transmitted. With UDP, the packet is not ordered or lost again when lost. These TCP and UDP packets carry their number with ports, it can be specified which application or process the packet should be handled. Because some application-level protocols use some ports, network policies can manipulate traffic according to special air. The example is to block the traffic set for a particular port, or to pre-set the Internet, except for the performance of some applications, to access the Internet.

Above the top of the border, some protocols are always used occasionally and at least fit in session and projection layers, especially Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol. These protocols are that location data between the two parties remains completely confidential. In the end, on the application layer, many protocols allow Internet users such as HTTP (Web Browsing), POP3 (e-mail), FTP (file transfer), IRC (internet chat), BitTorrent (file sharing) and XMPP message).

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) allows data packets to be used for synchronous voice communication. Data packets are marked as voice type packets and priority can be given by the network administrator, real-time, synchronous conversations may be subject to dispute with other types of data traffic, delayed (i.e. file transfer or email ) Or buffered in advance (ie audio and video) without any losses. That priority is fine when there is enough capacity for all VoIP calls to be made at the same time in the network, and network priority is i.e. enabled for a private corporate style network, but this is not done on the Internet and therefore anywhere Maybe a big difference in the quality of VoIP calls on a private network and the public Internet.

3. Local area networks and wide area networks
Despite the growth of the Internet, the features of the local area network (LAN) - computer networks that do not grow more than a few kilometers-remain separate. This is because at this level the network does not require all the facilities associated with large networks and often costs cost and efficient without them. When they are not connected to the Internet, they also have the benefits of privacy and security. However, due to the lack of connecting directly to the Internet, assurance protection is not provided by hackers, military forces or economic powers. If there is any payment to connect the LAN remotely then these threats exist.

Wide Area Networks (WNN) are private computer networks that extend to thousands. Once again, some of their benefits include privacy and security. The private LAN and WNA prime ministers include armed ball and intelligence agencies, their information should be kept safe and confidential.

In the mid-1980s, several sets of communication protocols emerged to fill the gap between the data connection and the screen layer of the OSI reference model. These included due to popularity with the MS-DOS users due to the ISX with major key protocol sets between AppleTalk, IPX and NetBIOS 1990. At this point, the PTC / IP was present, but on normal it was only by large government and research facility.

The kiss went on growing in popularity and its traffic needed to be rolled into a private network, the TCP / IP protocol case local area network relations were changed. Additional techniques like DHCP have allowed TCP / IP-based computers to configure themselves in the network. Such works were also present in the Appletalk / IPX / NetBIOS protocol set. 

While there are general data-link protocols for large networks such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS); Ethernet and token ring are specific data-link protocols for LAN. These protocols are different from the pre-protocols that they are simple, for example, they offer features like quality of service guarantee, and offer collision prevention. Most economic systems are allowed in both of these differences.
Despite the slight popularity of the IBM token ring in the 1980s and 1990s, almost all LANs now either use wired or wireless ethernet features. On the physical layer, most wired Ethernet implementations use copper twisted cables (including normal 10BASE-T networks). However, some initial implementations used heavy coaxial cable and some recent implementations (especially high speed) optical fibers. When an optic fiber is used, the difference should be made between multimodal fibers and single-mode fibers. Multimode fiber can be thought of as a coarse optical fiber which is cheaper to build devices but it is suffering from less usable bandwidth and poor attenuation - which shows poor long distance performance.

Transmission Capacity

Effective ability to exchange information worldwide through a two-way telecommunications network increased from 1 million in 281 petabytes (Optimized Compressed) data to 471 petabytes in 1993, 2.2 in 2000 (Optimized Compressed) Exabytes , And up to 65 (Optimized Compressed) Exabytes in 2007 This is equivalent to the figures of two newspapers per person per person in 1986, and till 2007 there are six persons per person newspapers. In view of this increase, telecommunications plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and the global telecommunications industry was in the 4.7 trillion in 2012. The service revenue of the global telecommunications industry was estimated at $ 1.5 trillion in 2010, which is the world's gross domestic product (2.4% of GDP)

Telecommunication companies in India

1.     Aircel:- Aircel Limited was an Indian mobile network operator with headquarters in Gurgaon offering voice and 2G and 3G data services. Maxis Communications has a 74% stake and Sindhi Securities and Investments has the remaining 26% stake. Aircel was founded by Chinnakanan Shivshankaran and in 1999 started operation in Tamil Nadu. This was once a market leader in Tamil Nadu and there was a considerable presence in Odisha, Assam and North-East telecom circles. Due to the failure to merge with Reliance Communications, the voice was closed in all the circles, including 2G and 3G services. Continue Reading.
Aircel | Telecom Customer Care

2.     Airtel:- Bharti Airtel Limited is an Indian global telecom service company located in New Delhi, India. It operates in more than 20 countries of South Asia and Africa. Airtel Operations provides GSM, 3G, 4G LTE mobile services, fixed line broadband, and voice services on a national basis. Airtel launched its VoLTE technology in all Indian telecom circles except Jammu and Kashmir and is likely to be launched in this circle soon. It is India's second largest mobile network operator and has the world's third largest mobile network operator with more than 438.04 million subscribers. For the first time in Branded Ranking by Millward Brown and WPP Plc, Airtel was named India's second most valuable brand. Continue Reading.
Airtel | Telecom Cutomer care

3.     BSNL:- Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) is an Indian state-owned telecommunications company with headquarter in New Delhi. It was incorporated on 15 September 2000 and was considered a business of providing telecommunication services and network management on a business-related basis to the Central Government Departments of Telecommunications Services (DTS) and Telecommunication Operations (DTO) on 1 October 2000. It is the largest provider of fixed telephony and broadband services with more than 60% market share, and it is the fifth largest mobile telephony provider in India. BSNL is India's oldest communication service provider and its history can be viewed back in the British era. Continue Reading.
BSNL | Telecom Customer Care
4.     Idea:- Vodafone Idea Limited is India's largest telecom operator, headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. Vodafone Idea is an all India integrated GSM operator, which offers 2G, 3G and 4G mobile services under two brands called Vodafone and Idea. Vodafone Idea also provides digital services including mobile payments, IOTs, advanced enterprise offerings, and entertainment, both of which provide access through digital channels as well as on-ground touch points across the country. Continue Reading.
Idea | Telecom Customer Care

5.     MTNL:- Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) is a state-owned telecommunications service provider in Mumbai and New Delhi metro cities and Mauritius island in Africa. By 1992, the company was a monopoly in Mumbai and New Delhi, when the telecom sector was opened to other service providers. "Transparency makes us different" is the motto of the company. At present, there is 57% stock in the company that is organized by public and institutional investors in the Government of India. The company's shares are listed on the Bombay Depository Receipts on the Bombay Stock Exchange, the London Depository Receipts on the London Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. By December 2017, there are 3.58 million subscribers. Continue Reading.

6.   JIO:- Jio Infocom Ltd., D / B / A Live, is an Indian mobile network operator. Owned by Reliance Industries and headquarter in Navi Mumbai in Maharashtra, it operates a national LTE network with coverage in all 22 telecom circles. Geo does not offer 2G or 3G services, and instead uses voice over LTE to provide voice service on its network. Continue Reading.
7.     TATA Docomo:- Tata Docomo is a telecommunication service of Tata Teleservices Limited (TTSL) which is available on GSM platform. It started in November 2008 as a result of a strategic alliance between the major Japanese telecom company NTT Docomo and the Tata Group. The word DoCoMo is made up of "Doing the Communications over Mobile Network", although in Japanese, Docomo means "universal". Tata Teleservices has got an all-India license for GSM services and these services are to be operated under the brand name of Tata Docomo, apart from this, the company has also been allocated spectrum in 18 telecom circles. Tata Teleservices Limited has introduced these services in different areas. Continue Reading.

8.     Telenor:- Telenor ASA (OSE: TEL; Norwegian pronunciation: [²teːlənuːr] or [tɛlənuːr]) is a Norwegian multinational telecommunications company whose headquarters is headquartered at Forbunk in Berrem near Oslo. It is one of the world's largest mobile telecommunications companies operating worldwide, is concentrated in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, and Asia. It has broad broadband and TV distribution operations in four Nordic countries, and a 10-year research and business line for machine-to-machine technology. Taylor Rowe has networks in 13 countries and operates in 29 countries (including 14.6% of Wayne owned).Continue Reading.


9.     Vodafone:- Vodafone Group is a British multinational telecommunications group with PLC / VOD D Ó FOn N / London and Newbury, headquartered in Berkshire. It primarily operates in the areas of Asia, Africa, Europe, and Oceania. In the mobile operator groups globally, Vodafone is ranked 4th in the number of mobile subscribers (313 million) in 2018 (behind China Mobile, Bharti Airtel, and Vodafone Idea). Continue Reading.

10. Videocon Telecom:- Videocon Telecom Limited, formerly Videocon Mobile Services, was an Indian cellular service provider who provided GSM mobile services in India under the Videocon brand name. The company was a subsidiary of Videocon Group, and its headquarters was in Gurgaon, Haryana. Videocon launched its services in Mumbai on April 7, 2010. At its peak, Videocon organized licenses to provide mobile services in 18 of India's 22 telecom circles. However, Videocon started commercial services in only 11 circles out of 18 circles. After the 2G spectrum issue, the Supreme Court canceled 122 licenses issued by the Indian government in 2008, which included 21 licenses from Videocon.

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